AUKU MENGONGKONG MAHASISWA

PENGENALAN Akta Universiti dan Kolej Universiti (AUKU) telah dikemukakan oleh Allahyarham Dato’ Hussien Onn (Menteri Pendidikan ketika itu) di Parlimen pada 17 Mac 1971 dan mula dikuatkuasakan pada 30 April 1971. Tujuannya dikatakan untuk mengadakan peruntukan bagi... penubuhan, penyelenggaraan dan pentadbiran universiti-universiti dan kolej-kolej universiti awam serta perkara-perkara lain yang berkaitan dengannya. Namun, akta yang telah melalui 3 siri pindaan ini; iaitu pada 1975, 1983 dan 1996 jelas tidak berimbang dan bersalahan dengan peruntukan yang termaktub di dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia. AUKU menjadi halangan kepada mahasiswa dan ahli akademik dalam menyuarakan pandangan secara bebas bertepatan dengan Artikel 10 Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Ia menggariskan bahawa hak kebebasan bersuara, berhimpun dan berpersatuan adalah hak kepada mana-mana individu yang sah sebagai warganegara Malaysia. Pembatasan hak-hak asasi warga institusi pengajian tinggi (IPT) dalam AUKU juga bersalahan dengan piawaian Hak Asasi Manusia PBB. Perkara ini merupakan suatu keaiban kepada Malaysia yang mendokong prinsip demokrasi. Sewajarnya sebagai negara demokrasi berperlembagaan, mahasiswa dan ahli akademik perlu turut sama diberi ruang untuk berkongsi rasa dan pandangan secara murni bersama-sama kerajaan dan pihak pentadbiran universiti bagi membentuk masyarakat dan negara yang adil serta sejahtera. KRONOLOGI PERLAKSANAAN AKTA UNIVERSITI DAN KOLEJ UNIVERSITI (AUKU) Kewujudan gerakan mahasiswa pada tahun 1970-an dan penglibatan mereka samada dalam kampus ataupun di masyarakat telah membimbangkan kerajaan. Kepesatan gerakan mahasiwa telah membimbangkan pihak kerajaan terutamanya mahasiswa banyak mengkritikkan kesalahan kerajaan demi memperjuangkan keadilan dan kebenaran. Kerajaan mulai bimbang akan gerakan mahasiswa terutamanya kejadian Tasik Utara yang berlaku pada tahun 1969. Kerajaan berpendapat gerakan mahasiswa perlu dihapuskan untuk memastikan kedudukan mereka tidak terjejas. Akhirnya, Akta Universiti dan Kolej Universiti (AUKU) 1971 telah dikemukakan oleh Menteri Pendidikan, Dato’ Hussien Onn di Parlimen pada 17 Mac 1971. AUKU kemudiannya telah dikuatkuasakan pada 30 April 1971. Pada masa penguatkuasaan, AUKU 1971 telah dipinda pada tahun yang berlainan seperti berikut: 1. 1971 (Akta 80) 2. 1975 (Akta A295) 3. 1983 (Akta A550) 4. 1996 (Akta A496) Walaubagaimanapun, pindaan yang dibuat pada tahun 1975 merupakan antara pindaan yang paling ketara dengan lebih mencengkami dan mencabuli hak-hak asasi mahasiswa Pindaan ini dibuat oleh Perdana Menteri yang keempat, Tun Mahathir yang merupakan Menteri Pendidikan pada ketika itu. Dengan ini, AUKU menjadi lebih zalim berbanding dengan sebelum segala pindaan. Situasi ini berjaya menakutkan kebanyakan mahasiswa kerana kezaliman dan keketatan akta ini. Tujuan utama Tun Mahathir membuat pindaan ke atas AUKU 1971 ialah untuk menghapuskan suara mahasiswa yang pada ketika itu yang semakin berpengaruh. Ini adalah kerana mahasiwa pada ketika itu banyak memperjuangkan isu-isu masyarakat dan sokongan dari masyarakat juga terhadap mahasiswa. Mahasiswa mengambil berat ke atas kebajikan masyarakat dan juga akan mengkritik kerajaan jika terdapat sebarang salahlaku. Untuk menghentikan kritikan ini, Tun Mahathir telah berjaya menakutkan sebahagian mahasiswa dengan menggunakan AUKU. Walaupun selepas penguatkuasaan AUKU, mahasiswa tetap memperjuangkan hak-hak asasi mahasiswa dengan mendemostrasi pada tahun 1971, 1972 dan 1973. Pada tahun 1971, AUKU dicabar secara terbuka oleh mahasiswa dengan mengadakan demonstrasi yang mengkritik kesalahan kerajaan Thai yang menzalimi golongan Muslim di Pattani. PERUNTUKAN AUKU YANG WAJAR DIMANSUHKAN Satu reviu ringkas dibuat dalam mengkaji AUKU 1971 sepintas lalu. Untuk ini, fokus diberikan secara langsung kepada peruntukan-peruntukan tertentu di bawah AUKU yang antara lain didakwa menyekat dan mengawal hak kebebasan mahasiswa untuk berpersatuan, mengeluarkan pandangan dan berhimpun: 1. Seksyen 15: Larangan ke atas pelajar atau organisasi, pertubuhan atau kumpulan pelajar selain diperuntukkan oleh Perlembagaan Universiti atau dibenarkn oleh Naib Canselor. 15. Prohibition on a student or a students’ organisation, body or group associating with societies, etc., except as provided under the Constitution or approved by the Vice-Chancellor. (1) No person, while he is a student of the University, shall be a member of, or shall in any manner associate with, any society, political party, trade union or any other organisation, body or group of persons whatsoever, whether or not it is established under any law, whether it is in the University or outside the University, and whether it is in Malaysia or outside Malaysia, except as may be provided by or under the Constitution, or except as may be approved in advance in writing by the Vice-Chancellor. (2) No organisation, body or group of students of the University, whether established by, under or in accordance with the Constitution, or otherwise, shall have any affiliation, association or other dealing whatsoever with any society, political party, trade union or any other organisation, body or group of persons whatsoever, whether or not it is established under any law, whether it is in the University or outside the University, and whether it is in Malaysia or outside Malaysia, except as may be provided by or under the Constitution, or except as may be approved in advance in writing by the Vice-Chancellor. (3) No person, while he is a student of the University, shall express or do anything which may be construed as expressing support, sympathy or opposition to any political party or trade union or as expressing support or sympathy with any unlawful organisation, body or group of persons. (4) No organisation, body or group of students of the University which is established by, under or in accordance with the Constitution, or any other organisation, body or group of students of the University, shall express or do anything which may be construed as expressing support, sympathy or opposition to any political party or trade union or as expressing support or sympathy with any unlawful organisation, body or group of persons. (5) Any person who contravenes or fails to comply with the provisions of subsection (1), (2), (3) or (4) shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both such fine and imprisonment. Catatan: - Seksyen 15 ini secara umumnya bertentangan dengan Perkara 10 (1) Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia yang menjamin hak setiap warganegara Malaysia untuk berpersatuan. Mahasiswa tidak dibenarkan menyertai apa-apa persatuan tanpa kebenaran daripada Naib Canselor universiti masing-masing. - Malah, larangan daripada menyatakan sokongan, simpati atau bantahan terhadap mana-mana organisasi juga bercanggah dengan Perkara 10 (1) Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang memberi kebebasan kepada warganegara untuk menyatakan pandangan selagi mana tidak menyentuh soal-soal sensitiviti yang termaktub dalam struktur asas (basic structure) Perlembagaan Persekutuan. - Peruntukan ini juga bertentangan dengan Artikel 19 dan 20 Universal Declaration of Human Rights yang menjamin hak setiap individu di dunia untuk menyatakan pandangan, berhimpun dan berpersatuan. (Rujuk Resolusi 217 A (III) bertarikh 10 Disember 1948 Perhimpunan Agung PBB) - Perkara 4 Perlembagaan Persekutuan menyatakan bahawa Perlembagaan ini adalah undang-undang tertinggi (supreme law) di Malaysia dan mana-mana undang-undang yang bercanggah dengan Perlembagaan, maka ianya adalah terbatal. Maka jelas di sini bahawa percanggahan yang berlaku ini boleh menyebabkan peruntukan ini terbatal dan tidak relevan kekal di dalam AUKU. 2. Seksyen 15B: Tanggungan jenayah exco organisasi, pertubuhan atau kumpulan pelajar 15B. Criminal liability of office-bearers, etc., of a students organisation, body or group. (1) Where any offence has been committed under any written law, whether or not any person has been convicted in respect thereof, and such offence has been committed or purports to have been committed in the name or on behalf of, any organisation, body or group of students of the University which is established by, under or in accordance with the Constitution, or any other organisation, body or group of students of the University, every office-bearer of such organisation, body or group and every person managing or assisting in the management of such organisation, body or group at the time of the commission of such offence shall be deemed to be guilty of such offence and shall be liable to the punishment prescribed by law therefor, unless he established to the satisfaction of the court that the offence was committed without his knowledge and that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence. (2) Any office-bearer of, or any person managing or assisting in the management of, any organisation, body or group as referred to in subsection (1) shall be liable to be prosecuted under this section, notwithstanding that he may not have taken part in the commission of the offence. (3) In any prosecution under this section of an office-bearer of, or any person managing or assisting in the management of, any organisation, body or group as referred to in subsection (1), any document found in the possession of any office-bearer of, or person managing or assisting in the management of, such organisation, body or group, or in the possession of a member of such organisation, body or group shall be prime-facie evidence of the contents thereof for the purpose of proving that any thing has been done or purports to have been done by or on behalf of such organisation, body or group. Catatan: - Pemegang jawatan atau orang yang menguruskan kumpulan pelajar adalah bersalah di atas nama persatuan tersebut melainkan dibuktikan mereka berusaha mencegahnya dan mereka akan didakwa walaupun tidak terlibat melakukan kesalahan itu. - Peruntukan ini jelas ketidakadilannya kerana mereka yang tidak terlibat dengan kesalahan akan turut didakwa dan ianya bercanggah dengan natural justice iaitu hanya orang yang didapati bersalah sahaja akan dijatuhkan hukuman. 3. Seksyen 15C: Anggapan 15C. Presumptions. In any prosecution under this Act- (a) it shall not be necessary for the prosecution to prove that an organisation, body or group of persons possesses a name or that it has been constituted or is usually known under a particular name; (b) where any books, accounts, writings, lists of members, seals, banners or insignia of, or relating to, or purporting to relate to, any organisation, body or group of persons are found in the possession, custody or under the control of any person, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that such person is a member of such organisation, body or group, and such organisation, body or group shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, to be in existence at the time such books, accounts, writings, lists of members, seals, banners or insignia are so found; and (c) where any books, accounts, writings, lists of members, seals, banners or insignia of, or relating to, any organisation, body or group of persons are found in the possession, custody or under the control of any person, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that such person assists in the management of such organisation, body or group. Catatan: - Di dalam peruntukan ini, terdapat sedikit kesongsangan apabila beban pembuktian (burden of proof – onus probandi) diletakkan di atas bahu pihak yang didakwa yang mana sepatutnya terletak pada bahu pihak pendakwa. 4. Seksyen 15D: Penggantungan atau pembuangan pelajar yang didakwa di bawah kesalahan jenayah atau terhadap siapa yang suatu kesalahan jenayah telah dibuktikan 15D. Suspension and expulsion of a student charged with a criminal offence or against whom a criminal offence is proved. (1) Where a student of the University is charged with a criminal offence he shall immediately thereupon be suspended from being a student of the University and shall not, during the pendency of the criminal proceedings, remain in or enter the Campus of that or any other University. (2) Where a court finds that a charge for a criminal offence is proved against a student of the University, the student shall, immediately thereupon, cease to be a student of the University, and shall not remain in or enter the Campus of that or any other University. (3) A student of the University who is detained, or is subjected to any order imposing restrictions on him, under any written law relating to preventive detention or internal security, shall, immediately thereupon, cease to be a student of the University and shall not remain in or enter the Campus of that or any other University. (4) A student of the University who is suspended from being a student of the University under the provisions of subsection (1) shall not, while he is so suspended, be admitted as a student of any other University in Malaysia without the written approval of the Minister, and if the Minister grants such approval, the Minister may impose such conditions as he may, in his absolute discretion, deem fit to impose. (5) A student of the University who ceases to be a student of the University under the provisions of subsection (2) or (3) shall not be admitted as a student of that or any other University in Malaysia without the written approval of the Minister, and if the Minister grants such approval, the Minister may impose such conditions as he may, in his absolute discretion, deem fit to impose. (6) Any person who remains in or enters the Campus of any University in contravention of the provisions of subsection (1), (2) or (3) or who obtains admission to any University in contravention of the provisions of subsection (4) or (5) shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both such fine and imprisonment. (7) The provisions of subsection (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) shall apply to a person notwithstanding that there may be pending in any court or before any other authority any application, petition, appeal, or other proceeding whatsoever by him or by any other person in respect of the criminal proceedings, the detention, or the order imposing restrictions, as the case may be: Provided that upon the determination of such application, petition, appeal or other proceeding the Minister may, in his absolute discretion, have regard to such determination and grant exemption to the student from the application of the provisions of subsection (1), (2), (3), (4) or (5), as the case may be, upon such terms and conditions as he may, in his absolute discretion, deem fit to impose. (8) The Minister may, at any time, in any particular case, in his absolute discretion, grant exemption to any person from the application of the provisions of subsection (1), (2), (3), (4) or (5), as the case may be either unconditionally, or upon such terms and conditions, or for such period, as he may, in his absolute discretion, deem fit. (9) (Deleted). Catatan: - Di dalam disiplin ilmu undang-undang terdapat satu maksim yang menegaskan bahawa seseorang individu tidak akan bersalah sehinggalah dia dibuktikan bersalah (a man is not guilty until he is proven guilty). - Peruntukan ini memberikan kuasa kepada Universiti untuk menjatuhkan hukuman pra-penghakiman (pre-judgment conviction) ketika kes sedang berlangsung di mahkamah dan ianya jelas bertentangan dengan maksim undang-undang yang disebut itu. Pelajar tersebut dijatuhkan hukuman terlebih dahulu oleh pihak Universiti iaitu sama ada dengan menggantung atau membuangnya daripada pengajian sebelum mahkamah membuktikannya bersalah. - Peruntukan ini bukan sahaja bertentangan dengan disiplin ilmu undang-undang malah ianya terbukti tidak adil dan menindas pelajar yang terbabit. 5. Seksyen 16B: Pihak berkuasa tatatertib pelajar universiti 16B. Disciplinary authority in respect of students of the University. (1) The disciplinary authority of the University in respect of every student of the University shall be the Vice-Chancellor. (2) The Vice-Chancellor who is the disciplinary authority under subsection (1), shall have the power to take such disciplinary action and impose such disciplinary punishment as may be provided for under any disciplinary rules that may be made by the Board under section 16C. (3) The Vice-Chancellor who is the disciplinary authority under subsection (1), may delegate any of his disciplinary functions, powers or duties to any of the Deputy Vice-Chancellors, any member of the staff, any officer or any employee of the University, or to any board of members of the staff, officers or employees of the University, in respect of any particular student, or any class or category of the students of the University, and the Deputy Vice-Chancellor, member of the staff, officer or employee or the board delegated with such functions, powers or duties shall carry out, exercise or discharge them under the direction and control of such Vice-Chancellor who shall have the power to review, rescind or vary any decision or finding of such Deputy Vice-Chancellor, member of the staff, officer or employee or such board: Provided that no delegation shall be made under this subsection to the Chancellor or the Pro-Chancellors. (4) Any student dissatisfied with the decision of the Vice-Chancellor who is the disciplinary authority under subsection (1) or of any person or board delegated with functions, powers or duties under subsection (3) may within thirty days from the date of the service of the decision on him appeal against such decision to the Minister who may, if he deems fit, summarily reject the appeal. (5) Where the Minister does not summarily reject an appeal under subsection (4), he shall appoint a committee of two or more persons, from within or without the University, to consider the appeal and make its recommendations to him, and, upon receiving such recommendations, the Minister may give such decision on the appeal as he considers fit and proper. Catatan: - Adalah meragukan apabila tribunal yang menghakimi perbicaraan mempunyai hubungan secara langsung dengan pihak pendakwa, iaitu jabatan hal ehwal pelajar (HEP) Universiti. Malah berlaku juga kes di mana ahli-ahli dalam tribunal terdiri daripada mereka yang dilantik oleh pihak HEP. - Kertas cadangan ini mengusulkan supaya tribunal yang dilantik adalah bebas dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh mana-mana pihak. Malah keanggotaan tribunal juga perlu dilantik di kalangan mereka yang mempunyai latarbelakang undang-undang bukannya orang biasa (layman)yang tiada kelayakan undang-undang. - Cadangan komposisi tribunal disiplin: 1. Seorang hakim Mahkamah Tinggi; 2. Seorang wakil daripada Majlis Peguam; 3. 3 orang pensyarah undang-undang daripada mana-mana kampus IPTA yang mana bukan daripada Universiti pelajar yang didakwa.

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2 comments:

  1. perh...panjangnye.....terkulat-kulat mana nak baca...huuhuhu ^________^

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  2. sejak bila.. kalo nk beriman nie.. ade had umur.. islam tu lengkap.. that's mean politik pon ade ler.. suke2 je had kn umur..

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